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Biology Chapter 3 & 4 Review

Know structure and function of all organelles

  1. Nucleus Contains DNA, control center of cell, nuclear membrane is phospholipid bilayer
  2. Endoplasmic Reticulum connected network of membranes - function = production of membrane proteins and lipids - two types

    Smooth ER Membrane lipid production

    Rough ER ribosomes bound to it

  3. Golgi Apparatus stacks and stacks of flattened sacks Phospholipid membranes Packaged products for export
  4. Mitochondria Energy Production Converts glucose to ATP inner membrane (Cristae)
  5. Lysosomes a vacuole that contains enzymes breaks down food particles degrades dead cells
  6. Vacuoles organelles that take in food, remove wastes, regulate water
  7. Cytoskeleton Gives shape and allows some cells to move made of protein tubes larger microtubules smaller microfilaments Both are types of protein
  8. Centrioles Small bundles of microtubules helps separate chromosomes during mitosis
  9. Chloroplasts only in plant cells and some bacterial cells converts carbon dioxide and water to glucose (food) in the presence of light Photosynthesis Chlorophyll
  10. Cell Wall Only in plants Composed of cellulose (carbohydrate) support of plant cell
  11. Ribosomes Protein production free or attached (ER)
  12. Phospholipid Membrane Composed of two layers of phospholipids (bilayer) phosphates are hydrophillic (water loving) fatty acid tails hydrophobic (water hating) - 3 types of proteins Channel proteins, receptor proteins, and marker proteins
  1. Define a polar molecule Like Water What makes a molecule like water polar
  2. Fluid Mosaic Model of cell
  3. What is the relationship between surface to volume ratio What happens to the efficiency of a cell when the Surface to volume ratio gets too small ex. 6:1 (large surface area, small volume) 3:1 medium surface area, small volume
  4. How does the hydrogen bond relate to water?
  5. What is the Cell Theory 2 parts
  6. Eukaryotes Animal cells True nucleus Membrane bound organelles
  7. Prokaryotes Bacteria no nucleus No membrane bound organelles
  8. Microscope parts objectives, eyepiece, stage, diaphragm, light source, body tube
  9. Be able to calculate the total magnification of microscope
  10. Phospholipid membrane is semipermeable
  11. What is the definition of osmosis
  12. What is the definition of diffusion
  13. What is facilitated diffusion
  14. Passive transport Use of channel proteins high to low concentration no energy
  15. Active transport Use of channel protein low to high concentration requires ATP energy
  16. What is endocytosis
  17. What is exocytosis

Biology Main Page Active Transport Chapter 4 Passive transport Osmosis & Diffusion Chapter 3